CHRISTIANS take the Bible as the Word of God, as their only authority and guide as to what to believe and what to do: what the Bible says, God says. And this must include what the Bible says about Creation. So what does God say about Creation? Christians need to know what the Bible says, and then they must believe it.
The BCS Creation Manifesto is a positive document, setting out the key things that the Bible teaches about creation, particularly about God, man and salvation, and their practical consequences. Creation is woven into all of the Bible, Old and New Testaments, and this document shows that it is not possible to believe the Bible’s teaching without believing in creation. It does not, however, try to cover everything, but what we believe to be the minimum that can be accepted on the subject and still be faithful to God’s Word.
- The first part covers what the Bible says directly about Creation, how all things began, and what happened soon afterwards.
- The Authority of the Bible on this subject
- The Creation of All Things
- The Creation and Nature of Man
- Creation and the Gospel
- The second part shows the practical consequences of this teaching: how its teaching affects what we do and what we should do today. It shows what it means for us, and why creation is still totally relevant.
- The Authority of the Bible on this subject
- The Creation of All Things
- The Creation and Nature of Man
- Creation and the Gospel
- The third part highlights certain statements that the Bible makes that directly impinge on the teachings and practice of various areas of science, and which cannot be ignored by the Christian in studying those areas.
Since this is a positive statement of the unchanging Word of God, it does
not seek to demolish or bolster any of the transitory ideas or theories
of man, whether Christian or anti-Christian. Rather, let those ideas be
brought to the rock of truth: and wherever they disagree, they must be wrong.
Let God be true, and every man a liar. [menu]
The Full Inspiration of the Bible
There is always discussion about just how the Bible should be interpreted, and to what areas of life it can be applied, so it needs to be stated at the outset what the Bible says about itself.
We are told that the Word of God, the Old and New Testaments, was written by human authors, but God guided them by his Holy Spirit to write only what was absolutely and eternally true. 1 This means that every word that was originally written down was true, whether it be speaking of spiritual things or of nature, or history.2
The First chapters of Genesis
Genesis 1—11 is the main passage which relates how everything was created, how man fell into sin, and how God judged the world with a worldwide Flood. Not only are these chapters written as sober history, clearly meant to be understood as such, but were taken as such by the New Testament writers, and by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. 3 God is His own interpreter, so we must see the origin, identity and importance of Adam and Eve in the same way that the New Testament sees it.
Since God’s purpose in causing every word to be true was to reveal the truth in his Word, and not to conceal it, it follows that the Bible is clear in what it says: so we know that events recorded in these chapters—Creation, the Fall of man, and the Flood—actually occurred and are accurately recorded for us.4 This does not mean that the words of the Bible can be treated as scientific statements: the infinite God has to take account of the limitations of finite man, nevertheless it is all without error. But it does mean just this— God means what He says! [menu]
1 2 Timothy 3:16
2 2 Peter 1:20-21
3 Matthew 19:4; Romans 5:12-14; 2 Peter 2:5; 3:5— 6; Jude 11—14.
4. The Bible makes it clear where God is speaking figuratively or poetically; and this is not the case in Genesis 1—11. This does not mean that all the Bible is always easy to understand; however; partly because of man’s sinful blindness. [menu]
The Creator Himself
There are a number of faiths that share a belief in creation, but one of the key distinguishing truths of the Bible is the identity of the Creator himself: the triune 5 God of the Bible, without a beginning and without an end. All three persons of the Trinity were active in Creation.6 In particular, the Lord Jesus Christ is the one through whom and for whom all things were created, both physical and spiritual (for instance both men and angels).7
The Creation in General
Creation is the foundation, as it were, of the Bible—though not the central truth, as the foundations of a building, though vital, are not the main purpose of the building. The Creator and His Creation are two separate things, not mixed in any way, and this distinction is basic to the understanding of reality, as in Genesis 1:1. Every created thing therefore finds it purpose, its fulfilment and meaning through a right relationship to the Creator.8
God created all things (matter, energy, time, space, and spiritual beings) out of nothing (ex nihilo)9: before the Creation, God was all that existed. This initial act can be called ‘absolute creation’. However, in some important phases of creation, such as the creation of the first man and woman, God used materials He had already created. These phases can be called 'mediate creation’.
The visible world, including all the universe, was formed, structured, and filled with life in six consecutive natural days.10 The initial creation was ‘formless and empty” 11 and the world was formed and filled on the succeeding days: our seven day week is thus defined by God, by the six days of creative activity followed by the one day of rest.12 On that seventh day God rested from His work of creation, which was finished and complete 13: after this creation is always spoken of in the past tense.’14
God’s work of creation in that first week was therefore a complete. finished work, and God himself described it as ‘very good' 15: there was no sin in that creation, nor any of its consequences.
Whilst God’s work of creation was complete, He did not just leave it, but He has continued since that moment to keep it together. keep it going. and have full control over it, by means of that same ‘powerful Word’ through which everything was called into existence.16 These works of God in upholding, sustaining and governing are commonly called ‘providence’, and are the basis of ‘natural law’, as the scientist would see it. The regularity and dependability of ‘natural law’ are illustrated in the Bible by references to the seasons’17 and to day and night.18
Creation, however, both ‘absolute’ and ‘mediate’, is a divine act which is of a different nature to His work of providence: God’s creative acts are acts of His power which result in the existence of things which were not. Examples are the origin of life, the creation of man, and at the end of this present age, the resurrection of all people.19 [menu]
5 Triune refers to the Trinity; the mystery of three persons in one God; and one God in three persons.
6 Genesis 1:1—2; John 1:3
7 John :3,10; Colossians 1:15—17; Hebrevs 1:2
8 Romans 9:20—21: 11:36
9 Hebrews 11:3
10 God defines the length of the creation days: ‘There was evening and there was morning—the first day (Genesis 1:5 and subsequent days). There is a clear continuity between these days and the natural days later in Scripture (e.g. Genesis 7:10.12; Exodus 16:34)) and history; so we have no reason to think they were other than 24 hour days, as today. The sun, moon and stars are only secondary sources of light and timekeeping (Genesis 1:14—18) and the initial conditions of creation in this respect will again be experienced (Revelation 21:23—25)
11 Genesis 1:2
12 Exodus 20:8—11
13 Genesis 2:1—2
14 Hebrews 4:3
15 Genesis 1:31
16 Psalm 33:6; John 1:1—3; Colossians 1:16—20; Hebrews 1:3; 2 Peter 3:5
17 Genesis 8:22: Acts 14i:17
18 Jeremiah 33:25
19 1 Corinthians 15:20—23 [menu]
Man and woman
God made Adam, the first man, out of the ‘dust of the earth’ and then breathed directly into him so that he came alive, and was made ‘a living being’ 20 Animals are also described as living beings 21 so Adam could not have come from an animal or pre-human being, otherwise God could not have described the moment of man’s creation as when he first became a living being. So the creation of Adam, from earth that was not alive, was truly ‘special’. God created Eve, the first woman, in a special way as well, from the side of Adam.22 Every human who has ever lived is descended from Adam and Eve, just as God planned.23
Made in God's Likeness
Adam and Eve were both made in the ‘image’ of the God who made them, 24 and it is this which makes man different from the animals: man alone is a spiritual being, able to have a personal relationship with his Creator, 25 Adam and Eve were sinless when they were made, and were in complete harmony with God in a perfect relationship until they disobeyed Him, 26
In Charge of the World
When God created the human race. He put them in charge of the rest of creation, 27 and this included the right to use it and the responsibility for taking care of it.28 [menu]
20 Genesis 2:7; I Corinthians 15: 45ff
21 Genesis 2:19
22 Genesis 2 2lff; 1 Corinthians 11:8; 1 Timothy 2:13
23 Genesis 1:28. 3:20: 5:3ff; Acts 17:26; Romans 5:14
24 Genesis 1:27- 5:1
25 Genesis 2:15—17; Psalm 8:3—8
26 Genesis 2:25: 3:8
27 Genesis 1:26,28; Psalm 8
28 Genesis 1:28; 2:15 [menu]
Man’s first act of disobedience, known as ‘the Fall’, was an historical fact. It was punished by both physical death 29 and spiritual death, as Adlam and Eve became separated from God by their sin. 30 Adam’s descendants inherited his fallen, sinful nature,31 and also were subject to both forms of death and to God’s judgment: 32 so we are all born sinners, 33 who will die.34 and indeed are already spiritually dead. Since death was a result of the Fall, no man died before the Fall.
God’s judlgment also fell, as a result, on all creation, over which man had been given control. It thus became subject to ‘the bondage of corruption’ and will remain so until Christ’s return. 35 The ground was cursed, 36 thorns and thistles would make things difficult, 37 and animals began to die 38 as part of this judgment.
A Physical Resurrection
In the New Testament salvation for man in Christ is fully revealed, and this salvation is from both the penalty and consequences of sin, including the major consequence of physical death. 39 Just as humans had a miraculous origin, they will also have a miraculous destiny, everyone who has ever lived and died being raised from the dead w hen Christ returns: 40 but then they will either be with Christ for ever, or punished for ever. We cannot consistently accept this supernatural destiny without also accepting our supernatural origin.
The Purpose of Creation
All things were created by Christ and for Christ, 41 but He will be seen at His most glorious in the new and restored creation. 42 The focus will be Christ, the Lamb of God, and the church which He has redeemed by his blood, 43 and this was God’s purpose in creating the world. 44
The Two Adams
An essential element of the New Testament teaching on salvation is the correlation between the first Adam as mankind’s ‘representative head’ in sin and death, and Jesus Christ, the ‘last Adam’, as representative head of those who have been redeemed, being justified and enjoying eternal life, 45 Man’s descent from Adam and inheritance of original sin is, therefore, integral to the gospel. [menu]
29 Genesis 3:19; 5:5
30 Genesis 3:24; Ephesians 2:1,5
31 1 Corinthians 15:21,22
32 Ephesians 2:3
33 Psalm 51:5
34 Romans 5:12: 8:21 23
35 Genesis 3:16; 17—19; Romans 8:19—21
36 Genesis 3:17
37 Genesis 3:18
38 Genesis 3:21
39 1 Corinthians 15:20-23,26
40 John 5:28,29; 1 Corinthians 15:23
41 Colossians 1:16
42 Romans 8:18—21
43 Ephesians 1:23; Revelation 21:22
44 Matthew 25:34
45 Romans 5:12—21; I Corinthians 15:21— 23,15—49: 1 John 5:11 .12 [menu]
The Bible’s teachings that are highlighted in Part 1 are not mere ideas, but have immediate practical application and relevance in today’s world, Indeed these truths of Creation are the foundation of morality, and are vital to the gospel itself. This section applies those teachings to today: the points of application relate directly to the similarly titled sections in Part 1.
The Full Inspiration qf the Bible
Whilst it is not a ‘scientific textbook’, the Bible is not wrong in anything
it says about
matters of nature, or history, and all statements it makes about them are totally reliable. Any method of interpretation which undermines ‘verbal inspiration’ 46 is unacceptable, as is the idea that it is possible that the created world can be ‘read’ and understood quite independently from God’s revelation in Scripture.
The First chapters of Genesis
As Christians, we have to accept what the Lord Jesus Christ and the apostles believed and taught about the origin and destiny of the human race. Genesis 1—11 is therefore to be understood by us as sober history, and not mythology or apocalyptic, or symbolic literature. This must be the case if we accept that God has given his Word to reveal and not to conceal.
Since God’s acts of Creation as recorded in Genesis 1 and 2 are miracles, we cannot examine the processes of creation by normal scientific methods. The consequences of these acts, however, can be investigated, provided that we recognize their miraculous and unique origins. [menu]
46 ‘Verbal inspiration’ is the teaching that every word in the Bible was ‘God-breathed and, therefore, infallible.
The Creator Himself
All worship, praise and obedience is due to God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and to His only Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, hecause He is the Creator. 47 Indeed all of the created order plainly shows that it was created and proclaims its Creator. 48 Any who fails to acknowledge the Creator are therefore without excuse and subject to God’s just judgment, because they wilfully neglect this evidence. 49
The Creation in General
God has given the whole creation to man to be enjoyed with gratitude,50 though selfdenial may be required out of love, or for God’s service, 51 Nevertheless because creation is the handiwork of God it is to be respected by man as well as enjoyed.
Creation, as an intelligent, purposeful act of God, with a clear end in view, cannot be interpreted by ideas of ‘randomness’ or ‘blind chance’.52 Since God also sustains and holds together all that He has made53 we must see His hand in the ongoing continuation and consistency of the material world (e.g the way night follows day and the regularity of the seasons). 54
Since God is in control of His creation, He is also in control of history and from Creation has ordered all events according to His will. 55 [menu]
47 Revelation 4: 11; Psalm 149: Colossians 1:16
48 Psalm 104; Romans 1:19,20
49 Psalm 19: 1—4; Romans 1: 18—25
50 Psalm 104; 1 Timothy 4:1—5
51 Romans 14.21; 1 Corinthians 7; Matthew 19:12
52 Proverbs 16:1; Romans 9:19—22: Colossians 1:16
53 Colossians l:1; Hebrews 1:3
54 Genesis 8:22: Psalm 101
55 2 Kings 19:25; Proverbs 16:4; Acts 17:26; Romans 9:19—22: Ephesians 1:11 [top of page]
Man and Woman
Men and women are equally made in God's image, 56 therefore anything that leads to the treatment of either sex as inferior is sinful, and Christians must recognize that in Christ there is equality of the sexes.57 Nevertheless at creation the husband was given the headship in marriage58 and this has been reaffirmed in the gospel age.59 This headship is not to be domination, which is a sinful consequence of the Fall 60 but is to be expressed in love, service, and honour. 61
God created mankind for lifelong marriage between one man and one woman, 62 which means that polygamy is not his intention, and that adultery, fornication, homosexuality and easy divorce are offensive to God and are destructive to us as His creatures.63 However, God created man a physical being and declared that this was good: 64 therefore we must not despise the body or sexuality, nor forbid marriage. On the contrary we should enjoy the good physical life that God has given. 65
Made In God 's Likeness
Man was created with the ability to communicate, in language, and that language is to be used to tell the truth, as our creator tells the truth: 66 and as a creation of the triune God, one God in three persons, mankind was made a social creature, created for relationship with his fellow man and with his God. 67
Since God created man for a purpose, every person has a God-given potential to fulfil.68 As humans we have a dignity and worth unique in all creation.69 being in the image of God, and this demands respect and love for all members of the human race. Every person is descended from Adam 70 and all share God’s image, therefore no-one is to be considered of less worth because of race, class, education, culture, job status, or sex.71 This image is borne even in the womb 72 and thus human life is to be treated with all respect and care from conception to death. This means that abortion, 73 the killing of children, euthanasia, and embryo experimentation must all be rejected.
In Charge of the World
Man was put in charge of the rest of creation, to rule over it on behalf of the Creator;74 he is therefore responsible to God for the way he exercises this stewardship. This dominion is expressed in the fact that Adam named all the birds and animals, at Gods behest; 75 scientific activities such as biological classification are therefore a proper part of that dominion.
Man’s dominion also means shaping and changing the world, not just tending what is there. 76 Activities such as agriculture and technology are also therefore good in principle, but only when there is a proper respect for the creation, and we must oppose wanton and unnecessary destruction of any part of it. Care for the environment must be balanced with its use for man’s benefit, and we must maintain a biblical perspective on the greater value of man in our concern for animal welfare. 77
The Fall has made it very difficult for man to exercise his dominion. 78 Whilst it is a blessing to work as in doing so we express an aspect of God’s image in us, yet it is also a curse and a trouble because of the Fall. [menu]
56 Genesis 1:27
57 Galatians 3:28
58 Genesis 2:18—23
59 Ephesians 5:23
60 Genesis 3:16
61 Ephesians 5:25—33
62 Genesis 2:18-25; Matthew 19:4-6
63 Romans 1:24—27; I Corinthians 6:9—10; Revelation 21;8
64 Genesis 1:31
65 1 Timothy 4:4
66 Genesis 1:28; 3:9—19; John 8:44
67 Genesis 1:26—27
68 Genesis 1:28; Ecclesiastes 12:13
69 Psalm 8; Matthew 6:26; 10:31
70 Acts 17:26
7l Romans 12:16; James 2:1—9
72 Psalm 139:13—16; Job 10:8—12
73 Abortion in this context refers to those things deliberately done by man to end the life of a human fetus. It is recognized that there might be occasions where the medical judgment is that the only choice is between saving the life of the mother or the baby.
74 Genesis 1:28; Psalm 8:6
75 Genesis 2.19.20
76Genesis 1:28: 4:3, 4; Deuteronomy 8:7—9
77 Matthew 6:26: 10:29—31; Luke 12:24
78 Genesis 3.17—19 [menu]
Because of the Fall, man has become a sinner, incapable of living to God’s glory or reflecting His righteous and holy character. His thoughts, words and deeds bring upon him the judgment of God, which includes alienation from his Creator.79 He is therefore completely dependent on Gods grace, expressed in Christ, if he is to be restored to fellowship with that same Creator.80
The Fall has brought the effects of sin into every aspect of human life: relationships between man and God, man and his body, man and himself, between man and woman, man and fellow man, man and nature, and even into creation itself, in that it is the sphere of man’s dominion.81 Other effects include alienation, suffering, frustration, decay and sorrow: the true root cause of man’s problems is. therefore, sin. [menu]
79 Romans 3:19—20; Ephesians 2:1—3: Colossians 1:21
80 2 Corinthians 5:17-19
81 Genesis 3:14—23; Romans 8:18—22 [menu]
While the Bible is not a scientific textbook, it makes some clear statements which have a direct bearing on the study of various areas of science, which provide both frameworks and baselines for the study of those subjects. The disciplines and issues dealt with in this section are of crucial and central importance (though many others could be cited), and failure to incorporate them into the relevant disciplines will result in failure to fully understand the subject, and failure to glorify God in that area of His creation.
The created order had a specific and definable beginning, 82 and the sun, moon and stars were created after the earth, on the fourth day of Creation. 83, 84; [menu]
82 Genesis 1:1: Matthew 19:4: Hebrews 1:3
83 See 10.
84 Genesis 1:14—19
The Created Order
The created order was originally perfect, thus it had no genetic defect, or any disease, in any part of it: 85 therefore before the Fall there was no human physical death, defect or disease, these being the result of Adam’s sin. 86
Plants and animals were created in definite groupings referred to in Scripture as 'kinds’, and they reproduce after these kinds. 87 However, the history of all land animals and birds has a genetic 'bottleneck’ at the Flood. Only those individuals in the ark, representatives of each kind, survived.
Man was separately created as a being distinct from the animals, so while he shares some physical characteristics with animals, he is the only creature made in the image of God, with all that image means (see Part 2), and he is unique. 88
Mankind was made as two distinct sexes, 89 and the whole race is descended from Adam and Eve. 90 Everyone on earth today is also descended from Noah, his wife, and their sons and daughters-in-law, who were saved from the Flood in the ark. 91 [menu]
85 Genesis 1:31
86 Genesis 3:19,22.23; Romans 5:12; 8:10,11, 20,21
87 Genesis 1:11,12,21.24
88 Genesis 1.26,27
89 Genesis 1:27; Matthew 19:4
90 Genesis 2:20—23; 3:20; Acts 17:26
91 Genesis 9:1; 2 Peter 2:5 [menu]
The genealogies in Genesis show that all human beings come from Adam, and the Creation account tells that man was created on the sixth day. Even if there are some gaps in the genealogies, the earth cannot be more than a few thousand years old.92
Genesis also shows that from the beginning man was civilized, intelligent
the use of bronze and iron tools, domestication of animals, cultivation of crops and production of musical instruments were known.93 The picture (usually presented by evolutionary anthropologists and historians) of the upward struggle of man from brutish origins to modern sophistication is not supported by the Bible.
The recorded human life spans at the beginning of history, which appear to be typical, were about 900 years.94 Following the Flood, the earth’s population became concentrated around Babel, and subsequently migrated from there over the whole earth 95 and life spans decreased.
The great Flood as described in Genesis Chapters 6 to 8 really happened in history, as the Lord Jesus Christ confirmed: 96 to deny this, therefore, is to disbelieve the words of Christ himself. Nevertheless the reality of the Flood will be denied in what Peter describes as the ‘last days’, and its crucial importance will, therefore, be ignored. 97
The Flood was a disaster of a magnitude never known before or since, and covered the earth for about a year. 98 This Flood was global—no part of the earth’s surface remained above water 99 and all human beings living at the time died in the Flood except for the eight in the ark.100 All air-breathing land creatures also died in the Flood except for those also in the ark. 101
The Flood and its after-effects must of necessity have vast implications for the study of geohistory; they must have left geological features that are still observable today. Geology and anthropology (the study of man) must, therefore, always be studied with reference to the Genesis Flood.
Since the truth about God was revealed at the Creation and through nature, 102 all other religions are false, and must be seen as a departure from the truth. However old the documents of other religions, they, therefore, come after the truth as recorded in Genesis. So, it is both reasonable and necessary to preach the Christian gospel to adherents of other religions with a view to their conversion, for only in this way can they be reconciled to their Creator. [menu]
92 e.g. Genesis 5; Genesis 10; 1 Chronicles; Luke 3:23—38
93 Genesis 4
94 Genesis 5
95 Genesis 11:9
96 Matthew 24:37—39: Luke 17:26—27
97 2 Peter 3:3—7
98 Genesis 7:11; 8:14
99 Genesis 7:19—24. 2 Peter 3:6
100 Genesis 7:21—23; 2 Peter 3:6
101 Genesis 7:21
102 John 1:1—4; Romans 1:20 [menu]
Man was created as a being made to communicate (see Part 2), who was initially able to talk directly with God 103 and had the power of speech from the very beginning of his existence. Indeed, from the Creation until after the Flood the earth had one common language; God brought different languages into being at Babel. 104 This may mean that there is no common root for those languages initiated at Babel, but it does not mean that there has not been subsequent development and fragmentation of languages and dialects after that event. [menu]
103 Genesis 3
104 Genesis 11
Man is a spiritual being and the main purpose of his existence is to know
God (see Part 1). Any attempt to fully understand
man without reference to his spiritual nature is wrong and doomed to failure,
and all existential. materialistic and nihilistic philosophies are, therefore,
opposed to the truth. [menu]
Christians have always acknowledged that they have not fully understood every part of the Bible, and so we believe that in the area of Creation also further diligent prayerful study will yield greater understanding of the Word of God, and, therefore, of the world around us.
Consequently we hope that greater agreement can be obtained in the future over many issues which are still the subject of controversy. The fact that there is no definitive statement about these in the Manifesto does not mean that they are of lesser importance, only that we recognize that differing views are possible in those areas, within the parameters set down in the Manifesto.
We may never arrive at satisfactory answers to some of our questions, and there may be room for different interpretations within a biblical framework, hut it is at least likely that we, individually or collectively, have failed to see that which God has clearly revealed, because of our sinful blindness. We need therefore to be humble and open-minded, and ask our God to show us more of his truth.
However we must continue to stand firm on those things which our Lord has
made clear, concerning the creation of the world and the nature of man,
for what we believe concerning our origin is fundamental to our destiny.
The origin of life itself
The evolutionist believes that life originated from naturally occurring chemicals. Basically the scenario is described as the formation of simple organic compounds (such as amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, etc.’ from an oxygen-free atmosphere. These then coalesce chemically (‘polymerisation’) to produce the large molecules that make up a living cell. From these, the cell is formed, Is it feasible?
How long would you have to shake a flask containing a concentrated mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, fats. etc. before a living cell formed? Yet this is a much more preferable mixture than that which could be formed by the evolutionary scenario.
The proposed sequence of steps is fraught with scientific problems. The oxygen-free atmosphere is highly improbable and there is no evidence that it existed. In addition, it would be chemically unstable. If oxygen were present. it would prevent the formation of the simple organic substances. Attempts to simulate the reactions in the laboratory are irrelevant and do not generate the required materials.
These chemicals are produced in a mixture of two configurations. Chemists compare these forms to right and left-handed gloves. They are not interchangeable and chemically they can be very different. For example, the right-handed’ form of limonene smells of oranges, but the ‘left-handed’ form smells of lemons. A drug used to treat sickness in pregnant women proved to be dangerous because it contained the two forms. In nature, only the lefthanded form is used among the amino acids and the righthanded version for sugars. A living system is necessary to produce these specific forms,
The process of polymerisation is the reverse of that experienced in non-living cells. A typical protein can take up to 100 million different ways of twisting itself together in space, but only one of these is biologically active.
Recent theories have argued that the initial biological system was probably based on RNA, which might facilitate replication processes before the living cell was formed. Orgel, a leading chemist, described this as ‘the prebiotic chemist’s nightmare’. RNA is a large molecule produced by the polymerisation of smaller units (nucleotides) on a sugar chain, But, no-one can show how these basic units would have arisen!
Speaking of the problem of the origin of life, another leading scientist (G. Wald) said, ‘One has only to contemplate the magnitude of this task to concede that the spontaneous generation of a living organism is impossible. Yet here we are—as a result, I believe, of spontaneous generation.’ Quite an act of faith! [menu]